In the last decade, various old conflicts were inflamed and new ones broke out in European states. Clashes over economic and social policy originate from growing socio-economic inequalities and dramatic consequences of the global financial crisis. Struggles over ethnic and national identities and national self-determination, rooted in the legacy of conflict and/or violence, flared up due to the erosion of minority rights, migration crisis and broader instability on the international stage and within regions. The crisis of political representation and political instability bolstered the rise of populism across the continent but also, in many cases, authoritarian trends, such as the decline of media freedom, political competition and the rule of law. On the other hand, many groups demand reforms of democratic procedures and alternative models of decision making to boost political participation, fair distribution and greater epistemological and ecological responsibility.